New study: CKCS have less skull volume/more abnormalities in shape than other breeds
This is newly published in the highly regarded AVMA:
American Journal of Veterinary Research
March 2009, Vol. 70, No. 3, Pages 340-345
Use of magnetic resonance imaging for morphometric analysis of the caudal cranial fossa in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels
Inés Carrera, DVM; Ruth Dennis, VetMB, MA; Dominic J. Mellor, BVMS, PhD; Jacques Penderis, BVSc, PhD; Martin Sullivan, BVMS, PhD
Institute of Comparative Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, Scotland. (Carrera, Mellor, Penderis, Sullivan); Animal Health Trust, Lanwades Park, Kentford, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU, England. (Dennis)
Presented in abstract form at the International Symposium Syringomyelia, Rugby, England, October 2007.
Address correspondence to Dr. Sullivan.
Objective—To perform morphometric analysis of the caudal cranial fossa in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs), to assess the relationship between caudal fossa dimensions and the frequency of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of occipital abnormalities in CKCSs (with and without syringomyelia), and to compare caudal cranial fossa measurements in CKCSs with measurements of 2 groups of mesaticephalic dogs.
Animals—70 CKCSs and 80 mesaticephalic (control) dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were placed into 4 groups as follows: Labrador Retrievers (n = 40), spaniel-type dogs (40; English Springer Spaniels and Cocker Spaniels), CKCSs with syringomyelia (55), and CKCSs without syringomyelia (15). Multiple morphometric measurements (linear, angular, and area) were obtained from cranial midsagittalT2-weighted magnetic resonance images including the brain and cervical portion of the spinal cord. Several specific MRI findings were also recorded for CKCSs that appeared to affect the occipital bone and cervicomedullary junction.
Results—No significant difference was identified among breeds in control groups and between sexes in any of the groups for all morphometric measurements. Significant differences were identified in CKCSs, compared with mesaticephalic dogs, in the area of the caudal cranial fossa and for several linear measurements that reflected the length of the ventral aspect of the occipital bone. These differences were greater in CKCSs with syringomyelia. All CKCSs had abnormalities in occipital bone shape.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CKCSs had a shallower caudal cranial fossa and abnormalities of the occipital bone, compared with those of mesaticephalic dogs. These changes were more severe in CKCSs with syringomyelia.