My jurisdiction is Cobb County, GA. Interestingly, the EXACT same thing happens to a dog who bites a person whether they are current on rabies vaccination or NOT current. The dog is quarantined for TEN DAYS, and the owner may select from quarantine at the county animal control facility, the owner's veterinary office, or the owner's HOME. If the owner doesn't want to pay for quarantine with their vet, the county will take the dog to their facility. If the animal is small, elderly, or has a medical condition, the person's vet can request that the dog be quarantined at the owner's home, and animal control will likely comply with the request.
The more serious situation is what happens when a wild animal bites a dog. If you report this to the county, there is a six month quarantine which can also be at the animal control facility, a vet's office, or at home, depending on the situation. "Animals with expired vaccinations are evaluated on a case by case basis." Remember, though, that someone must REPORT this incident to animal control. An owner could report an incident and request that his/her pet be put down, but this is not a requirement if the owner does not agree to euthanizing the pet. The important thing is to know your rights before an incident happens and be prepared to cooperate and stand firm for what you want to do.
I am quite familiar with all of this because my neighbor's dog (wire fox terrier) bit a person (and bit the person's dog too) so I saw all of this in action. My neighbor immediately took the dog to her vet's office, but the dog was allowed to return home for the quarantine. My neighbor also paid for the bills for treatment for human and dog, and she installed a double fence system in her yard. She was not sued by the bitten person, who was another neighbor.
My 10, 12 and 15 year old dogs are not current on rabies vacs, and they never will be again. My 4 year old is current, and I MIGHT get one more rabies vac for her when it is due. My 8 year old indoor only cat had two rabies vacs in his life, and he will never be vaccinated again. I feel confident that they are protected for life. (google Dr. Ron Schultz and his duration of immunity studies) Bad reactions are not super common, but they do happen (more for cats than dogs) and vets know this. When my 13 year old (in 2007) was rushed to the ER with IMHA (immune-mediated hemolytic anemia), the first question asked by the admitting vet was "did she have a recent rabies vaccination?"
http://portal.cobbcountyga.gov/index...155&Itemid=490 and you can also google and download a copy of rabies laws for the state of Georgia